Thursday, 31 May 2012

But they may face the same liabilities under law
So what about insurance?

It is very important within Conductive Education that distinction is made with 'therapy'; conductors are not health professionals and the basis of their work is very different. There may, however, be circumstances in which people outside do not see such distinction, with the perception being more important than there reality. One of these could be with respect to liability and insurance.

I other words, heath worker or educator, rightly or wrongly, conductors could find themselves being sued, for all sorts of things, and could end up having to pay damages. 

The following explanatory article was written by insurance broker David Balen, specifically for alternative/complementary health practitioners, many of whom find themselves in similar professional 'grey areas' with respect to insuring their practice:

This article relates specifically to the Law of England, but the considerations raised may also provide useful guidance for consideration by conductive practitioners elsewhere.


Balen, D. (2012) Managing risk and identifying health professionals’ insurance needs, Positive Health Online, June

Tuesday, 29 May 2012


Some people have crazy ideas, very crazy in some cases. Usually, I guess, they are harmless and the rest of us can either ignore them or take a sort of bemused pride in our tolerance of such eccentricities. I am sure that every country has its eccentrics. And we all know that they make great television.

From today's issue of

A few weeks ago an incredible 'documentary' was shown on MTV entitled  War against the Hungarian nation. The production is available on YouTube it is becoming evident that the Hungarian far right is having a heyday on MTV and Duna TV, both directed from a government-controlled media center...  

'..the role of the Carpathian Basin as the center of the world. Whoever rules this area rules the world. It is the “heart center” (szívközpont) of the world. It is also the strategic center of Earth, and that is the reason for the constant war that has been waged against the Hungarians.... 'our genes contain the known knowledge or, in other words, 'the divine knowledge.' Other people are jealous of this sacred knowledge. Hence, the persecution of the Hungarians by others...

While this nonsense was being aired on MTV, Duna TV was spreading the gospel of the far right... The program on runic writing could be seen a couple of days ago in a series called Hagyaték (Heritage)... 

...Hungarian children should be taught runic writing already in first grade instead of the Latin alphabet because it 'would strengthen the children’s self-identity'...

Such notions about Hungary’s place in the world lead to political isolation and economic ruin.

They lead to other things too. Only a couple of months ago I read Heather Pringle's book The Master Plan, about the Ahnenerbe. Its one comfort is that it is written in the past tense.

Such things could never happen again, unless the lunatics take over the asylum. Nem, nem, soha...


Short extract, with readers' comments

Full original text, with its own readers' comments


Can anyone find me  the URLs?


Review of this book (from archaeological viewpoint):

A few words on runes (and the right):

Four Facebook informational sites
What else in social networks?


Facebook is a quick, way to spread awareness around the Internet, quicker than writing or reading a blog, readily found and accessed. It encourages response and comment, and its new Timeline format shows all earlier postings, right back to the date that a given page first appeared (a search engine would be handy and will doubtless come – though in the meantime Google can help).

At least four Facebook pages currently offer news, links and information, and the opportunity to respond to these. They have in common that they provide a focus on Conductive Education, with a penumbra of other items of personal interest – all of course as seen from the positions and perspectives, and in the personal style, of their respective administrators. Together therefore they offer both overlap and diversity of content:
  • Conductive World (Andrew Sutton)
  • [Untitled] – (Norman Perrin)
  • Pető Education UK (Szathmáry Judit)
  • Pető Intézet (Ádam Mákk)
You may know of others that fit the same loose criteria. 

If so, do please let me know of them so that I can pass the information on.

Other pages, other social networks?

Readers of Conductive World may already know these pages.

They may also of course know of other Facebook pages that fit the same loose criteria. I can mention only those that I know of. Similarly, Facebook is not the only social-networking system. It is however the only one that I follow.

Do please let me know of others, of any kind, in any language, and I shall pass the information on.


Thursday, 24 May 2012

Where conductors worked

Just over ten years ago Baljeet Jhheent and I conducted a survey of services where conductors were then reported to be working around the world.

Note the careful wording: the criterion 'where conductors work' does not necessarily equate with what many regard as amounting to Conductive Education (or conductive upbringing, or even necessarily conductive pedagogy).

In all, 212 institutions were identified from our own data, some large, many small, some public, many outside the public sector, spread across sixteen countries. These were all sent a brief questionnaire asking for corroboration of details and other information.

The interim results were introduced here:

This report was amended and reissued three months later:

Results and reflections

Further links take you to the actual details of services operating ten years ago.
Preliminary listing
Revised listing
Hardly surprising was the very poor return on the questionnaires (centres returning completed questionnaires are indicated in these lists in bold). But more time and further pestering do bear a little fruit.

Ten years later it is interesting to see who and what survive out of those named individuals and institutions around the world, and who and what have gone.

Ten years on there are many places listed here still in operation. Together these must have clocked up a very considerable experience of so many aspects of providing conductive services in a very wide range of situations. It is pity that little of this has been a collective effort, and most of that experience has remained locked in the individuals and the institutions involved.

One begins to wonder about 'succession planning' and what this represents.

And now...

Data collection continued (with little active participation from many centres), with the results published on line. It was hoped that a comprehensive published list of places where conductors are employed will prove a benefit to people seeking conductive services, to conductors and future conductors, and to those advocating the development of CE.

This listing has been subsequently maintained and developed by Gill Maguire, initially at the National Library of Conductive Education, and now on behalf of Conduction:

There seem to have been no parallel international surveys or listings (or if there are they have not been published). Gill's lists have been drawn upon  by a variety of websites  usually unacknowledged.


Jhheent, B. (2002) Preliminary listing of CE worldwide, Conductive Chronicle,, 11 January
Jhheent, B. (2002) CE World Survey Report, Conductive Chronicle, I May

Sutton, A. (2002) CE World Survey: Preliminary Report, Conductive Chronicle, 11 January
Sutton, A. (2002) CE World Survey Update, Conductive Chronicle, 1 May

Wednesday, 23 May 2012

An offer you CANNOT refuse

I count myself fortunate up here in the Northern Hemisphere to be on Sue Reilly's mailing list from Australia. She and they do things rather more ruggedly than how we now do up here in matters to do with CE. This morning the following summons to action was awaiting me when I woke –
Hi all –
The following item, from yesterday's Australian newspaper, represents a potentially very significant opportunity for the development and funding of Conductive Education in this country.
As stated, there is now 'a unique opportunity for an overhaul of disability education' in Australia from the simultaneous policy reforms now being undertaken by the federal govt, both the NDIS and the Gonski education reform recommendations.
Those of us who advocate for CE are entirely aware that one of the reasons this approach works so well is because it is founded on a philosophy of high expectations, and that it is because we are up against a 'systemic culture of low expectations' that it has proved such a struggle to get anyone in authority to listen to us.
But thinking is now changing, and those of us who want CE to flourish in this country urgently need to work out ways to draw its existence to the attention of those in authority now looking at ways of funding more effective, outcomes-focused services for Australians with disabilities.
This is the item to which Sue refers –
Disability education overhaul
Natasha Robinson
A SYSTEMIC culture of low expectations means that for disabled children the nation's schools are just 'babysitting services', a high-level meeting of figures in education and social service has been told.

The author of the federal review of the nation's education system, David Gonski, and Labor senators Jan McLucas and Jacinta Collins met yesterday with disability advocates in Sydney.

The meeting, organised by the umbrella group Children with Disability Australia, was told that there was a unique opportunity for an overhaul of disability education that came with simultaneous policy reforms in the two areas being carried out by the federal government.

CDA executive officer Stephanie Gotlib told The Australian that children with a disability must be wholly included in the aspirational targets that are set down in the Gonski report.

Mr Gonski said in his report, handed down in February, that an extra $5 billion a year was needed above what was being spent by state and federal governments on education.

Mr Gonski proposed a new funding system for education on the basis of a baseline of funding for each student, which would be increased on the basis of factors including disability, Aboriginality and remoteness. 'I think funding is integral to many of the changes but I also think we have to do some work on addressing this culture of low expectations,' Ms Gotlib said.

'Mr Gonski spoke a lot about aspirations, and we need to make sure that those educational outcomes are very clear for students with disability.

'A common comment to us is that parents liken their child's educational experience to babysitting. We don't want babysitting, we don't want minding, and we don't just want personal care.

'There needs to be very clear educational outcomes where children with disabilities are enriched and extended academically throughout their education.'

Mr Gonski said yesterday that he believed the government was undertaking the work that his team had identified as being crucial in reforming disability education: gathering statistics on the numbers of children who suffered disabilities and how they were being supported.

'We concluded easily that the definitions of disability lacked logic, were not consistent and had no basic transparency, particularly in relation to how we approach them for funding for schooling,' Mr Gonski said.

Think big

Too true, Sue – of the reasons this approach works so well is because it is founded on a philosophy of high expectations...
A vital reason for the indifference, misunderstanding and outright opposition that Conductive Education has met over the years, everywhere, is that it represents a whole new way of thinking about what is disability. And a central feature of this – what first brought it on to my own radar over thirty years ago and what has kindled the passion and enthusiasm of so many parents over the years since—is just this, that one should expect so much more. Or, as David Gonski presently expresses it in Australia –
A common comment to us is that parents liken their child's educational experience to babysitting. We don't want babysitting, we don't want minding, and we don't just want personal care.
It is only by confronting the big, strategic issues, like the transformability of human potential as a product of upbringing and education, and the transfer of physical disability out of the realm of medicine and health, that Conductive Education will break in from the fringes and achieve its deserved recognition *.

Come on you Aussies. Don't be bashful. In a situation such as David Gonski has opened up to you, established interests have by definition nothing useful to say – and everyone's voice counts as strongly as everyone else's. Speak up from the experiences of CE, advance its big messages. Seize the day.


Robinson, N .(2012) Disability education overhaul, The Australian, 22 May

*     Take just these two, the transformability of human potential as product of upbringing and education and transfer of physical disability out of medicine and health. Together they take you beyond the weak notion of 'support'. Advocate instead that disabled children need to be brought up, educated, taught, as do all other children – though not always necessarily in the same way. 

Tuesday, 22 May 2012

It CAN be done

As part of the New Zealand CE Awareness Week, the Southland Times has published a well-briefed feature item on the Southland Centre for Conductive Education.

Credit to the editor and the reporter – but features like this do not just write themselves. The reporter has to be briefed: a coherent and well based-account has to be clearly delivered, and then probably a draft-product gone through together and discussed. So credit too to everyone at Southlands for a good story, well told

I could quibble. Please, no training', and the British, three-year conductor-training course was at Wolverhampton, not Birmingham University, but such distinctions hardly matters in this context! I would rather applaud niceties, such as –
...teaches families how to live with a disability while still living themselves...
Rather, I would trumpet from the roof-tops what is NOT said:
  • no sick children
  • no therapy
  • no 'multidisciplinary'
  • no cod neurology
  • no 'principles of conductive education'
An awareness worth having
The philosophy of conductive education is that children and adults with motor disorders of neurological origin can learn, and... become more independent, in small, manageable steps and through goals that are specific to each child.

 (2012) Holistic approach pays off, Southland Times, 22 May 

Monday, 21 May 2012

What's 'ethical'?

On 17 May Conductive World's Facebook page posted a notification –
£241,163 will pay for outreach, and 'more therapists'
'Conductive education therapy complements NHS treatment as an additional therapy and combines physiotherapy and occupational therapy with learning'.
Pro and con
A brief correspondence ensued. Some expressed joy that CE had struck it lucky, conductor Laszlo Szogeczki widened the CE funding news from the North East of England –
Also in Newcastle, the Percy Hedley Foundation, received £280,215 to provide around 120 disabled people in the area with employment opportunities.
Others took a more critical stance. Conductor Gabor Fellner quoted the announcement –
It is the only charity in the region offering free conductive education therapy to young people. Conductive education therapy complements NHS treatment as an additional therapy and combines physiotherapy and occupational therapy with learning.
He then pointed out what this means in the public estimation in terms of what the term 'Conductive Education' now apparently means de facto to this major funding body, and presumably to a wider public too.
In other words CE is a multidisciplinary approach and therapy for children with CE. To have some money is really brilliant but to use this kind of false definition of CE is not so brilliant...
Norman Perrin gave a quotation, and stated his own forceful position –
If Conductive Education does not offer a coherent intellectual account of itself, on where it comes from, what it actually does, and of its goals, then it cannot expect outsiders to know what it is about and should not be surprised if it is misunderstood by decision-makers, budget-holders and researchers." From Last Year in Hong Kong, 'Philosophical and historical, social and political' by Andrew Sutton.

Grant-givers, evidently, can be seduced into all sorts of tosh such as 'conductive education therapy. Sadly, so can some parents.
Susie Mallett has written to me, pointing out that 'therapy' implies the presence of sick or poorly children, something that donors (think that) they understand, and one can hardly blame institutions looking for funding playing this potent card.
    I have to say, this would certainly appear to offer a more conductive  path than long, long and often fruitless hours trying to enlighten people about the vast superiority of an educational path to learning and development.

    Ethical fundraising

    Well, good luck to all institutions that can find the money to pay the staff and stay alive, whatever they do. When I had to take part in such things people often asked my take on 'ethical fundraising'. I had to admit that there were few sources that I would not have accepted money from to keep the show on the road (and in the event I never had to face dilemmas such as a offer from the Mafia that I could not refuse).

    On the other hand, there were limits and it never evenoccurred to me or my associates to brand package CE as a therapy... Had it done so, I doubt that the Devil himself could have tempted us, with all the kingdoms of he Earth.


    Conductive World (2012) Big lottery win for English centre, Facebook, May

    Sutton, A. (2011) Philosophical and historical, social and political. In Last Year in Hong Kong, Birmingham, Conductive Education Press, pp. 39-44

    Saturday, 19 May 2012

    And now a message from its server

    A click on the URL brings up the following message –

    Server Default page
    If you see this page it means:

    1. hosting for this domain is not configured, or
    2. there's no such domain registered in Parallels Plesk Control Panel
    Perhaps there is a better URL. Who knows?

    Recent reports on CESK

    Thursday, 10 May 2012

    Critical independent report from NORAD

    NORAD is the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, a specialised directorate under the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    The Project for the Holistic Habilitation of Children with Cerebral Palsy began in 2009 under the China Disabled People's Federation, and covers three provinces in the Chinese People's Republic. It is set to end in 2013.

    In November 2010 NORAD was presented with a mid-term evaluation of this extensive project by the Ming Chuan Educational Consultancy.

    Among weaknesses identified, with specific respect to what the report refers to as Conductive Education, the consultancy's interim conclusion and recommendation are summarised as follows –
    Conductive Education: Introduction without the experts to effectively implement it and without considering whether it really is the best approach to therapy for CP children in China.

    In light of these conclusions, the recommendations of this evaluation are as follows:
    Carry out a feasibility study to fully understand the resources available within China to provide the capacity building necessary for the fulfilment of the project goal and to determine the best approach to therapy (be it conductive education or otherwise)...
    It would have been nice to have known about this at the CE World Congress, held in Hong Kong in December 2010. Perhaps the final report could feature at the next world Congress, to 
    be held in Munich in Germany towards the end of next year.


    Walmsley, M. et al. (201o) Project for the holistic rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Mid-term evaluation, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, ChinaMing Chuan Consultancy

    This page provides a link to the complete report on PDF, offering frank and considerable further detail.

    Some background reading

    Cao, Li-Min, Cheng, Clare (2010) The development of Conductive Education in China; prospect and challenges, Presentation to the 7th World CE Congress, Hong Kong, December

    Schenker, R. (2012) (Middle) East meets (Far) East: a visit report, The Conductive Post, February

    Sutton, A. (2011) Last Year In Hong Kong, Birmingham, Conductive Education Press

    Patently what?

    Recent renewed interest in 'special needs' has thrown up some previously unnoticed Internet flotsam. This for example – 
    [October 05, 2007]
    Special needs children's centre to seek patent rights  paper 
    (Hungarian News Agency Via Thomson Dialog NewsEdge) Budapest, October 5 (MTI) - Hungary's world-renowned Peto Institute, a centre for children with locomotive disorders, has received a new director and is seeking to patent the special needs method of the so-called conductive education it has developed, national daily Nepszabadsag reported on Friday. Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsany has appointed Franz Schaffhauser as director of the Budapest-based centre, with hopes of putting an end to years of disputes over the leadership of the institution. Schaffhauser has pledged to start legal preparations to protect the special education method developed at the centre with an international patent. He also initiated a research programme to incorporate the latest research results into the Peto method. Andras Peto developed his conductive education system after WW2 and his method opened up a new way for the rehabilitation of children and adults suffering from motor disorders whose dysfunction was due to damage to the central nervous system. Around 1,200 children – many of the from abroad – are treated each year in institute, which also functions as a training centre for educators. There are an estimated 15 million children aged under 14 around the world suffering from motor disorders whose condition can be improved with the Peto method. Copyright 2007 Hungarian News Agency, Source: The Financial Times Limited (Click on the link at the top-right of the page)
    Think on't.

    Some old thoughts on this
    Sutton, A (2007) Conductive Education: a patent misunderstanding? Conductive World, 9 October 2007
    This was one of the very first postings on Conductive World. Since then the world has moved on and many things have changed. There seems little to add to that posting of four years ago, however, except to wonder what has been happening to the application (or applications). Many people around the world would doubtless love to see the required specified technical definition of Conductive Education or the Pető Method.

    Monday, 7 May 2012

    Essential guiding principle

    'Never give up' was one of the explicit personal principles that ruled András Pető's life and practice. It was a basic ingredient in the mix that developed out of movement therapy in the late nineteen-forties to create conductive movement pedagogy. This is not of course to imply that he 'invented' or 'discovered' this principle. Like so much that has gone into the development of what is presently called Conductive Education it is a social and personal commonplace that had been blended ('conducted') into a particular approach and for particular purposes.

    Conductor Lisa Gombinsky has sent me the following video, called coincidentally Never give up:

    What has this to do with Conductive Education?

    In one way of looking at things (the biological), Arthur Boorman's personal case study shown in this video comes from a different field of rehabilitation. From another way at construing our world, however, from a paradigm one that raises the level of analysis to one at which the psycho-social subsumes the biological, such a distinction is a false one – one moreover that distracts from a fundamental truth. In other words, thoughtful people in Conductive Education know better and will spot higher-order affinities beneath lower-level differences. Thus, good professional advice was 'you will never walk again' – overturned by recognition that you should 'own your life'. And by the way, look at the comments under this video for how it has to be patiently explained that progress depends on motivation and that this in turn may depend on others... What an uncomprehending world it remains, now as in András Pető's time.

    The transformation documented in this video took under a year to achieve.

    For those who like more

    There is an extended version of this video at:

    And watch out for the immanent publication of the book András Pető.

    Friday, 4 May 2012

    Effects of cut-backs increasingly apparent

    Flat-lining or a technical double-dip depression? This is a fine distinction as shops, businesses, industrial concerns, long-established companies, arts bodies, charities, and more and more jobs, go under on a daily basis, changing both the look of the country and the structure of our society.

    Health education: quantitative change

    The scale of physiotherapy and nursing education is under review. Training places are no longer being funded in the same numbers. A spoke for Birmingham University, for example, offers the following reassuring words –
    Nursing and physiotherapy within the School of Health and Population Sciences at the University of Birmingham is currently undergoing an options appraisal on its future configuration where all possible options are being considered.
    The appraisal of all the possible options for nursing and physiotherapy is being undertaken inclusively and transparently. All staff and students have been made aware and invited to attend meetings and comment. The University is also ensuring that all relevant external stakeholders, including local NHS partners, are communicated to regularly throughout the process.
    How do they write such a stuff? Where do they find the brass neck to publish it!

    A decision is expected next month.

    Teacher education: qualitative change too

    On the same day the same regional newspaper reports that local universities are considering closing down teacher-training. There is a flurry of more mealy words at the Government's proposed new school based ways of arranging things, despite which the concern for the future is still apparent –
    These changes will need to be managed very carefully if the dangers of incoherence and fragmentation are to be avoided... The loss of expertise and commitment to teacher training will be huge and the loss of a relatively coherent and understood system for teacher training will affect all potential trainees. ..Some current providers, particularly universities who are facing major changes in other parts of their work are, naturally, considering whether or not to continue working in teacher training. Overall, therefore, we should be very worried about the possible threats posed to the supply of teachers to the country by all this.
    Not a word of course about practical training for special education.


    Earlier this week some national news from the charitable front 
    More than 300 organisations face imminent closure because of financial pressures and the need to help more people than ever... Last year, 265 charities – each with a turnover of £500,000 a year – were forced to shut down.
    Yet another example of the now familiar phenomenon of the rich getting richer, while the poor get poorer?

    All in all, it is going to be a strange and unfamiliar new world...


    CE and special education in the US

    The US special education 'industry' is huge, its institutions exceedingly well developed and quite powerful. This must be very much to the good in all sorts of ways, but could also mean that vested interests and resistance to change may be very powerful indeed.

    Be that as it may, Conductive Education in the United States is in a long, disappointing road to nowhere, other than as yet another of the jostling crowd of fringe therapies, unless it cracks special education (I am sure that there are those who would disagree and could argue a case for a contrary course but they don not do so, publicly anyway). Breaking into special education in the United States would take a long, concerted and well-founded campaign that ought by now to be entering its third decade.

    Of course this matters in the US but it matters to much of the rest of the world too, especially the English-speaking world and to societies that depend upon the US for all sorts of cultural matter. If the US special education industry takes something up and runs with it, then the rest of the world will likely follow (choose your own examples of this). If the US ignores something, then only particularly strong local traditions and institutions may be able to go it alone.

    20C and 21C

    There were indeed special educators involved in the early days of the US interest in Conductive Education, but since then there has been a discontinuity, with little of no engagement now between CE and the special educational establishment.

    As far as I know there has no comprehensive, published bibliographic review literature on CE in the United States from an educational standpoint. I do hope that I am wrong. Here, though, is what little that comes immediately to mind from the last few years.

    Christine Pawelski and Columbia Teachers College

    In 2007 Alberto M. Bersztyn's Praeger Handbook of Special Education included amongst its authoritative entries one by Christine Pawelski. At the turn of the century she had led a three-year study into complementary practices within special education, at Columbia University Teachers College, New York. Her thoughtful and sympathetic account (pp. 84-88 of the Handbook) is available in full on line, free of charge:

    Other traces of that project can still be found on line, for example:
    Christine and Columbia are no longer connected with Conductive Education.

    Exceptional Children

    After a long gap, the publication of an academic article CE in the US special education journal TEACHING Exceptional Children (vol. 41 no 5, 2009, pp. 66-72, 2009), by Katharine Ratcliffe and Cindy Sanekane, seemed initially a matter for rejoicing, even though its tone, content and conclusions were chillingly familiar from the medical press:.

    Since June 2010 the complete article has been available on line on docstoc, for US$ 6.95 (less than a fiver in British money):
    Its online abstract, though, is free –
    Conductive education (CE) is an intensive, holistic approach to the education of people with physical disabilities that recognizes that teaching and learning are related to the emotional, cognitive, and physical aspects of individuals. Despite its popularity in the United States and throughout the world, research has not demonstrated a clear advantage of CE over traditional forms of schooling and therapeutic intervention. Yet, the number of centers offering CE continues to increase, and school districts are being asked to consider this expensive and time-consuming approach by families who advocate strongly for CE programs for their children with disabilities. This article addresses the history and content of CE, the different types of programs available, family perspectives about CE, comparisons between CE and traditional special education services, and the benefits and challenges of different CE models so that teachers and administrators can make informed decisions to appropriately support children and families. (30 references)
    More research is needed, as they say. The suggestion has yet to be taken up (again, information to the contrary would be very welcome) and no further interest or discussion appears to have been stimulated as a result of this publication. As far as I can see, no further published articles have referred to it though  of course its conclusions remain, indexed in the public domain.

    Award-winning young teacher-blogger

    In 2010 Jennifer Quincer, a new teacher in California blogged enthusiastically about her experience of CE at the ConductAbility centre, in the Reality 101 blog of the Council for Exceptional Children. If the comments on this blog are a guide, 'outsiders' could not hear what she was talking about (no fault of her articulate account, outsiders rarely grasp the essence of CE without the benefit of direct exposure):
    When people visit our room, they are amazed at what our students can do. I think of it as building upon the old saying about accomplishing what we put our minds to. I have watched my students’ motivation and control translate directly into their ability and enthusiasm to connect to and use what we learn every day in class.
    Her account is available in full on line: 
    She appears no longer connected with CE.

    So it goes...

    Disconnection from the education system as a whole (or, as L.S. Vygotskii might have said, its dislocation) is quite a characteristic of Conductive Education, not just in the United States.


    Sutton, A. (2001) When Worlds Collide: Promises and Realities, Conductive Chronicle, 2 February

    Sutton, A. (2009) CE in US special education literature, Rejoice, rejoice, Conductive World, 8 May

    Sutton, A. (2010) All change. As conductors say, on the train, Conductive World, 17 March